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    History of Sindh
 
Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. Different cultural and ethnic groups also reside in Sindh including Urdu speaking people who migrated from India at the time of Independence and Partition as well as the people migrated from other provinces after independence. The Neighbouring regions of Sindh are Balochistan to the west and north, Punjab to the north, the border with India to the east, and the Arabian Sea to the south. The main languages are Sindhi and Siraiki. In Sanskrit, the province was dubbed Sindhu meaning "Ocean". The Assyrians (as early as the seventh century BCE) knew the region as Sinda, the Persians as Abisind, the Greeks as Sinthus, the Romans as Sindus, the Chinese as Sintow, while the Arabs dubbed it Sind. It is mentioned to be a part of Abhirrdesh (Abhira Kingdom) in Srimad Bhagavatam.Historically it was also known as Aparanta. Sindh was the first place where Islam spread in the Indian Subcontinent. As a result, it is often referred to as "Bab-al-Islam" (Gate of Islam).

Origin of the Name
The province of Sindh has been designated after the river Sindh (Indus) which literally created it and has been also its sole means of sustenance. However, the importance of the river and close phonetical resemblance in nomenclature would make one consider Sindhu as the probable origin of the name of Sindh. Later phonetical changes transformed Sindhu into Hindu in Pahlavi and into Hoddu in Hebrew. The Greeks (who conquered Sindh in 125 BC under the command of the Alexander the great) rendered it into Indos, hence modern Indus.

Prehistoric period
The Indus valley civilization is the farthest visible outpost of archeology in the abyss of prehistoric times. The areas constituting Pakistan have had a historical individuality of their own and Sindh is the most important among such areas. The prehistoric site of Kot Diji in Sindh has furnished information of high significance for the reconstruction of a connected story which pushes back the history of Pakistan by at least another 300 years, from about 2,500 BC. Evidence of a new element of pre-Harappan culture has been traced here. When the primitive village communities in Baluchistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a highly cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji one of the most developed urban civilization of the ancient world that flourished between the year 2,500 BC and 1,500 BC in the Indus valley sites of Moenjodaro and Harappa. The people were endowed with a high standard of art and craftsmanship and well-developed system of quasi-pictographic writing which despite ceaseless efforts still remains un-deciphered. The remarkable ruins of the beautifully planned Moenjodaro and Harappa towns, the brick buildings of the common people, roads, public-baths and the covered drainage system envisage the life of a community living happily in an organized manner.

This civilisation is now identified as a pre-Aryan civilisation and most probably the Dravidian civilization which was conquered by the invading batches of Aryans. The Brahui language is a remnant of the civilisation which flourished in this region.

Geography
Sindh is located on the western corner of South Asia, bordering the Iranian plateau in the west. Geographically it is the third largest province of Pakistan, stretching about 579 km from north to south and 442 km (extreme) or 281 km (average) from east to west, with an area of 54,407 square miles or 140,915 km of Pakistani territory. Sindh is bounded by the Thar Desert to the east, the Kirthar Mountains to the west, and the Arabian Sea in the south. In the centre is a fertile plain around the Indus river. The devastating floods of the river Indus are now controlled by irrigation techniques. Karachi became capital of Sindh in 1936, in place of the traditional capitals of Hyderabad and Thatta. Other important cities include:
Sanghar, Sukkur, Dadu, Shahdadkot, Sehwan, Mirpukhas, Larkana, Shikarpur, Nawabshah, Kashmore, Umerkot, Tharparkar, Jacobabad, Ghotki, Ranipur and Moro.

Climate

A subtropical region, Sindh is hot in the summer and cold in winter. Temperatures frequently rise above 46 C (115 F) between May and August, and the minimum average temperature of 2 C (36 F) occurs during December and January. The annual rainfall averages about seven inches, falling mainly during July and August. The Southwest Monsoon wind begins to blow in mid-February and continues until the end of September, whereas the cool northerly wind blows during the winter months from October to January.
Sindh lies between the two monsoons - the southwest monsoon from the Indian Ocean and the northeast or retreating monsoon, deflected towards it by Himalayan mountains — and escapes the influence of both. The average rainfall in Sindh is only 15 to 18 cm per year, but the loss during the two seasons is compensated by the Indus, in the form of inundation, caused twice a year by the spring and summer melting of Himalayan snow and by rainfall in the monsoon season. These natural patterns have changed somewhat with the construction of dams and barrages on the Indus.


Aerial view of Karachi


Climatically, Sindh is divided in three sections - Siro (upper section centred on Jacobabad), Wicholo (middle section centred on Hyderabad), and Lar (lower section centred on Karachi). In Upper Sindh, the thermal equator passes through Sindh. The highest temperature ever recorded was 53 C (127 F) in 1919. The air is generally very dry. In winter frost is common.

In Central Sindh, average monsoon wind speed is 18 km/hour in June. The temperature is lower than Upper Sindh but higher than Lower Sindh. Dry hot days and cool nights are summer characteristics. Max. temperature reaches 43-44 C (110-112 F). Lower Sindh has a damper and humid maritime climate affected by the south-western winds in summer and north-eastern winds in winter and with lower rainfall than Central Sindh. The maximum temperature reaches about 35-38 C (95-100 F). In the Kirthar range at 1,800 m7 and higher on the Gorakh Hill and other peaks in Dadu District, temperatures near freezing have been recorded and brief snow fall is received in winters.


Demographics and Society

The 1998 Census of Pakistan indicated a population 30.4 million, the current population can be estimated to be in the range of 42 to 44 million using a compound growth in the range of 2% to 2.8% since then. With just under half being urban dwellers, mainly found in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas, Nawabshah, Umerkot and Larkana. Sindhi is the sole official language of Sindh since the 19th century. The British required all officers posted to Sindh to become fluent in Sindhi upon posting to Sindh. In 1972, the first elected Sindh assembly since the dissolution of the province restored this status but successive governments have failed to implement the law and many officials in the Sindh government cannot speak, read or write the language.


Sindh Demographic Indicators
Indicator
Statistic
Urban population
49.50%
Rural population
50.50%
Population growth rate
2.80%
Gender ratio (male per 100 female)
112.24
Economically active population
22.75%

Large sections of the population speak Sindhi with other languages spoken including Urdu, Seraiki, Kutchi (both dialects of Sindhi), Balochi, Brahui, Punjabi, Pashto, Rajasthani, Persian/Dari, Khowar and Gujarati. It is estimated that Urdu speakers make up 15% and Sindhis make up 75% of the total population of Sindh, and Balochis, Pashtuns and Punjabis a significant part of the rest. The chief tribes of Sindh are Jats and Rajputs, while Balochis are more recent immigrants. Both Balochi Sindhis and natives speak Sindhi language as their mother tongue. Going just by language, Sindhi speakers make up 80% and Urdu speakers make up 11%, while 9% of the total population of Sindh speaks Pashto, Punjabi, Balochi, Seraiki, Thari, Persian, Kutchi, and Gujarati.

Sindh's population is predominantly Muslim, but Sindh is also home to nearly all of Pakistan's Hindus, numbering roughly 1.8 million. Most Sindhi Hindus migrated to India at the time of the Partition. Smaller groups of Christians, Parsis or Zoroastrians, and a tiny Jewish community (of around 500) can also be found in the province.
The Sindhis as a whole are composed of original descendants of an ancient population known as Sammaat, various sub-groups related to the Seraiki or Baloch origin are found in interior Sindh. Sindhis of Balochi origin make up about 30% of the total population of Sindh, while immigrant Urdu-speaking Indian Muslim refugees (Muhajirs) make up 15% of the total population of the province. Also found in the province is a small group claiming descent from early Muslim settlers including Arabs, Turks, Jews, Afghans and Persians. Most of the Indian Muslim refugees were given shelter by the Sindhis in the big cities of Sindh, Karachi and Hyderabad in 1947.


Historical Populations
Census
Population
Urban
1951
6,047,748
29.23%
1961
8,367,065
37.85%
1972
14,155,909
40.44%
1981
19,028,666
43.31%
1998
35,439,893
48.75%
2010
60,000,000
57.5%

Government
The Provincial Assembly of Sindh is unicameral and consists of 168 seats of which 5% are reserved for non-Muslims and 17% for women.

Districts

There are 23 districts in Sindh.
• Karachi • Larkana • Jacobabad • Shikarpur • Qamber Shahdakot • Sukkur • Ghutki • Kashmor • Khairpur • Noushehro Feroz
• Dadu • Nawabshah • Jamshoro • Sanghar • Matyari • Hyderabad • Tando Muhammad Khan • Tando Allah Yaar • Badin • Thatta • Mirpurkhas • Umerkot • Tharparker

Major Cities
• Badin • Dadu • Daharki • Diplo • Ghotki • Hala • Hyderabad • Jacobabad • Jamshoro • Karachi • Kashmore • Khairpur
• Larkana • Mirpur Mathelo • Mirpurkhas • Mithi • Nasarpur • Nawabshah • Raharki • Ratodero • Sadiq Abad • Sanghar • Sekhat
• Shikarpur • Rohri • Sukkur • Tando Jam • Tando Muhammad Khan • Thatta • Ubaro • Umarkot

Economy
Endowed with coastal access, Sindh is the backbone of Pakistan's economy. It generates almost 30% of the total national tax revenue (26.8% in the last two years). The federal government, however, spends just 23% of the financial divisible pool there. The Sindh government considers the formula of financial resource distribution (the NFC award) to be unjust and solely population-denominated. But the fact remains that most business is done through Karachi - a major sea port and major revenue collection and banking centre. Because Karachi is a business hub, actual Sindh tax revenue is much higher than its official tax revenue.
Sindh is a major centre of economic activity in Pakistan and has a highly diversified economy ranging from heavy industry and finance centred in and around Karachi to a substantial agricultural base along the Indus. Pakistan's rapidly growing information technology sector (IT) is also centred in Karachi and manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and various other goods.
Agriculture is very important in Sindh with cotton, rice, wheat,
 

sugarcane, bananas, and mangoes as the most important crops. Sindh is the richest province in natural resources of gas, petrol, and coal.

Flora and Fauna
The province is mostly arid with scant vegetation except for the irrigated Indus Valley. The dwarf palm, Acacia Rupestris (kher), and Tecomella undulata (lohirro) trees are typical of the western hill region. In the Indus valley, the Acacia nilotica (babul) (babbur) is the most dominant and occurs in thick forests along the Indus banks. The Azadirachta indica (neem) (nim), Zizyphys vulgaris (bir) (ber), Tamarix orientalis (jujuba lai) and Capparis aphylla (kirir) are among the more common trees.
Mango, date palms, and the more recently introduced banana, guava, orange, and chiku are the typical fruit-bearing trees. The coastal strip and the creeks abound in semi-aquatic and aquatic plants, and the inshore Indus deltaic islands have forests of Avicennia tomentosa (timmer) and Ceriops candolleana (chaunir) trees. Water lilies grow in abundance in the numerous lake and ponds, particularly in the lower Sindh region.

Among the wild animals, the Sindh ibex (sareh), wild sheep (urial or gadh) and black bear are found in the western rocky range, where the leopard is now rare. The pirrang (large tiger cat or fishing cat) of the eastern desert region is also disappearing. Deer occur in the lower rocky plains and in the eastern region, as do the striped hyena (charakh), jackal, fox, porcupine, common gray mongoose, and hedgehog. The Sindhi phekari, ped lynx or Caracal cat, is found in some areas.

Phartho (hog deer) and wild bear occur particularly in the central inundation belt. There are a variety of bats, lizards, and reptiles, including the cobra, lundi (viper), and the mysterious Sindh krait of the Thar region, which is supposed to suck the victim's breath in his sleep. Crocodiles are rare and inhabit only the backwaters of the Indus and the eastern Nara channel. Besides a large variety of marine fish, the plumbeous dolphin, the beaked dolphin, rorqual or blue whale, and a variety of skates frequent the seas along the Sind coast. The pallo (sable fish), though a marine fish, ascends the Indus annually from February to April to spawn.

Education
The Narayan Jagannath High School at Karachi was the first government school established in Sindh. It was opened in October 1855. The province has a high literacy rate compared to other parts of Pakistan, mainly due to the importance of Karachi. The major academic institutions of Sindh include the Aga Khan University, Bahria University, University of Karachi, Sindh University, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Institute of Business Administration (Karachi), Dow University of Health Sciences, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (Jamshoro), Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Quaid e Awam University of Engineering and Technology Nawabshah, Isra University Hyderabad, Hamdard University Karachi, Baqai Medical University Karachi, Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur (SALU), Chandka Medical College, Peoples' Medical College Nawabshah, Sindh Madarastul Islam Karachi, D. J. Sindh Government Science College, and the Indus Valley Institute of Art and Architecture, Shaheed Z. A. Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology Karachi, Sindh Agricultural University Tandojam, Iqra University and the Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology,Institute of Business Administration (IBA) Sukkur.

There are six Cadet Colleges also. Admission to state run educational institutions in Pakistan is based on the provincial level. The other three provinces have a merit-based intraprovincial admission policy. Sindh is an exception to this general rule, where admissions are allowed on district domiciles of the candidates and their parents. This arrangement discriminates against meritorious students of Sindhi ethnic background, denying them admission to educational institutes and courses of their choice. Currently there is a lot of resentment of this admission policy. Sindhis are demanding intraprovincial merit-based admissions to state run educational institutes, similar to the one existing in other provinces. This will provide equal opportunities to all students of Sindh. Furthermore, the armed forces have also entered the education sector. They are funded by government and operate like private costly education providers.

Arts and crafts
The skill of the Sindhi craftsman continues to exhibit the 5000-year-old artistic tradition. The long span of time, punctuated by fresh and incessant waves of invaders and settlers, provided various exotic modes of arts which, with the passage of time, got naturalized on the soil. The perfected surface decorations of objects of everyday use - clay, metal, wood, stone or fabrics, with the floral and geometrical designs - can be traced back to the Muslim influence.

Though chiefly an agricultural and pastoral province, Sindh has a reputation for 'Ajrak', pottery, leatherwork, carpets, textiles, and silk cloth which, in design and finish, are matchless. The chief articles produced are blankets, coarse cotton cloth (soosi) camel fittings, metalwork, lacquered work, enamel, gold and silver embroidery. Hala is famous for pottery and tiles; Boobak for carpets; Nasirpur, Gambat and Thatta for cotton lungees and Khes. The earthenware of Johi, metal vessels of Shikarpur, relli, embroidery, and leather articles of Tharparkar, and lacquered work of Kandhkot are some of the other popular crafts.

The pre-historic finds from different archaeological sites such as Mohenjo-daro, engravings in various graveyards, and the architectural designs of Makli and other tombs provide ample evidence of the people in their literary and musical traditions.
Modern painting and calligraphy have also developed in recent times and some young trained men have taken up commercial art collections.
Cultural Heritage
Sindh has a rich heritage of traditional handicraft that has evolved over the centuries. Perhaps the most professed exposition of Sindhi culture is in the handicrafts of Hala, a town some 30 kilometres from Hyderabad. Hala’s artisans are manufacturing high quality and impressively priced wooden handicrafts, textiles, paintings, handmade paper products, blue pottery, etc. Lacquered wood works known as Jandi, painting on wood, tiles, and pottery known as Kashi, hand woven textiles including Khadi, Susi, and Ajrak are synonymous with Sindhi culture preserved in Hala’s handicraft.
The artisans of Hala rarely get the justified price of their labour. The middlemen have been exploiting the artisans for decades selling the handicrafts at exorbitant profit margins at tourist hot spots of Karachi Lahore and Islamabad and even abroad. There is a dire need of patronizing the handicraft cluster of Hala, provide the artisans a platform to sell their products in cities and export markets so as to enable them earn handsome amount of their produced goods.
 


The Small and Medium Enterprises Authority (SMEDA) is planning to set up an organization of artisans to empower the community. SMEDA is also publishing a directory of the artisans so that exporters can directly contact them. Hala is the home of a remarkable variety of traditional crafts and traditional handicrafts that carry with them centuries of skill that has woven magic into the motifs and designs used.

The diverse Sindhi cultures, lifestyles, traditions as well as geographical conditions have influenced Sindhi art, and for over a century handicrafts have been a source of pride and a livelihood for the people of Hala. Kashi woodwork and other products made by the artisan community of Hala have established a position in the domestic and international markets. Jandi woodwork of Hala gives a glimpse of the richness of Pakistani culture and tradition has been followed through generations.

Sindh is known the world over for its various handicrafts and arts. The work of Sindhi artisans was sold in ancient markets of Armenia, Baghdad, Basra, Istanbul, Cairo and Samarkand. Referring to the lacquer work on wood locally known as Jandi, T. Posten an English traveller who visited Sindh in early 19th century said, the articles of Hala could be compared with exquisite specimens of China.

Jandi is famous all over the world due to its delicacy, durability and the natural beauty of the wood. Jandi is rendered on lamps, candle stands, flower vases, jewelry boxes, cigarette boxes, ash trays, pots, swings, cots, dressing tables, chairs & tables, bedroom sets, sofa sets, and telephone stands. The Jandi work also has its drawbacks. The persons associated with the business said that lacquer furniture and items have a long life but acid, alcohol, and oil will damage the colour. Moreover, direct sunshine and water can destroy the life of the products. Hala has also preserved the extraordinary traditional ceramic techniques.

The village potters known as kumhaar across the Indian sub continent are still producing exquisite earthenware in Hala. In Pakistan the finest examples of Kashi work are in the Sindh province. Kashi work consisted of two kinds: (a) Enamel-faced tiles and bricks of strongly fired red earthenware, or terracotta; (b) Enamel faced tiles and tesserae of lightly fired lime-mortar, or sandstone. Some authorities describe tile-mosaic work as the true Kashi.

Hala’s apparel tradition is one of the world’s oldest with handlooms and power looms dating back to the Indus valley civilization. The hand-spun and hand-woven cloth called "Khadi" was being exported to various countries since time immemorial.

Since Khadi deals in natural fibres viz. cotton, silk and wool only, spun and woven in natural environment, it can boast of being 100 percent natural, unlike handloom and mills which receive cotton yarn, blended with some regenerated cellulose fibres. Khadi cloth has found its place in haute couture and on the ramps of most eminent fashion devas.

Over a period of time cotton was mixed with silk to create Mashru, a double layered material with a thick cotton base and a silken warp woven in satin weave, a purely Indian innovation. It was woven specially for the ladies. In the Susi weave the cotton weft lay against the skin; hence it was permissible to wear it. In the Ain-i-Akbari, it is mentioned that Susi, a reputed silken fabric from Shush, a town in Persia, was originally brought to the Deccan via Alexandria during the 11th century. Susi lost its silken character somewhere along the line and reappeared as a cotton fabric in Lahore in the 1620’s. Susi later became synonymous with Sindh, the primary production centres being Hala and Hyderabad.

Technological improvements were gradually introduced such as the spinning wheel [charkha] and treadle [pai-chah] in the weavers’ loom, to increase refinement in designing, dyeing and printing by block. Painting process amounted for a much higher volume of output. The refined, lightweight, colourful, washable fabrics from Hala became a luxury for people used to only woollens and linens of the age.
Ajrak has been in Sindh since the birth of its civilization. Blue colour is dominantly used in Ajrak. Also, Sindh was traditionally a large producer of indigo and cotton cloth and both used to be exported to the Middle East. Ajrak is a mark of respect when it is given to an honoured quest, friend or woman. In Sindh, it is most commonly given as a gift at Eid, at weddings, or on other special occasions - like homecoming.

Along with Ajrak the Rilli or patchwork sheet, is another Sindhi icon and part of the heritage and culture. Every Sindhi home will have set of Rillis - one for each member of the family and few spare for guests. Rilli is made with different small pieces of different geometrical shapes of cloths sewn together to create intricate designs.

Rilhi is also given as a gift to friends and visitors. It is used as a bedspread as well as a blanket. A beautifully sewn Rilli can also become part of a bride or grooms gifts. Rural women in Sindh are skilful in producing Sindhi caps.

Sindhi caps are manufactured commercially on a small scale at New Saeedabad and Hala New. These are in demand with visitors from Karachi and other places and these manufacturing units have very limited production due to lack of marketing facilities.

The Sindhi Language
Sindhi is spoken by about 15 million people in the province of Sindh. The largest Sindhi-speaking city is Hyderabad, Pakistan. It is an Indo-European language, related to Urdu and other Indo-European languages prevalent in the region with substantial Arabic, Turkish and Persian loan words. In Pakistan it is written in a modified Arabic script.

Places of Interest

Sindh has numerous tourist sites with the most prominent being the ruins of Mohenjo-daro near the city of Larkana. Islamic architecture is quite prominent in the province with the Jama Masjid in Thatta built by the Mughal emperor Shahjahan and numerous mausoleums dot the province including the very old Shahbaz Qalander mausoleum dedicated to the Iranian-born Sufi and the beautiful mausoleum of Muhammad Ali Jinnah known as the Mazar-e-Quaid in Karachi.

• Shrine of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai @ Bhit Shah. • Shrine of Shahbaz Qalander @ Sehwan.
• Ruins of Mohenjo-daro & Museum near Larkana. • Ranikot Fort near Sann. • Aror (ruins of historical city) near Sukkur.
• Mazar-e-Quaid Karachi. • Kahu-Jo-Darro near Mirpurkhas. • Sadhu Bela Temple near Sukkur.
• Minar-e-Mir Masum Shah @ Sukkur. • Mohatta Palace Museum @ Karachi. • Gorakh Hill near Dadu.
• Jama Masjid Thatta @ Thatta. • Makli Graveyard, Asia's Biggest @ Makli, Thatta. • Rani Bagh @ Hyderabad.
• Sukkur barrage @ Sukkur. • Kotri Barrage near Hyderabad. • Talpurs' Faiz Mahal Palace, Khayrpur (princely state).
• Talpur Forts @ Kot Diji • Forts at Hyderabad. and Umarkot.

Places of Historical Interest


Gorakh Hill
The Gorakh Hill is Highest Hill Point In Sindh among the Kerthar Mountain Range. Gorkah Hill Is located in North-west of District Dadu along with Balochistan Border. Gorakh Hill is under Develop Project. You reach Gorkah Hill Top from Dadu City with 4x4 Vehicles, which are available from Dadu and Johi. Gorakh Hill Top is 93Km From Dadu City, at the milestone of 17Km you reach the small city of Johi which is the Taluka of District Dadu, and Starting Point Of kacho Area and the milestone of 41Km you reach the last small town Before Gorakh Hill Wahi pandi which is the settled in the lap of Kerthar Mountain Range. After Wahi Pandi the Road is Towered Slowly at the milestone of 53Km you are Enter in Yaroo Pass (Yaroo Sain Jo Luck) after Crossing Yaroo Pass 2500ft Above See Laval and the journey continue in Mountains and at the milestone of 76Km you reach the Base camp of another Highest Pass of Kerthar Mountain Range it is Khanwal Pass the base camp is on elevation of 3000ft and the Top of Khanwal pass on the Elevation of 5000ft Above See Level.
 


The Distance Between Khanwal Pass Base Camp To Khanwal Pass Top Is 4Km. The 4Km Journey is too zigzag. After reach the Top of Khanwal Pass Drive continue to Gorakh Hill Top which is the 13Km. At the Top Of Gorakh Hill you can stay in Rest House or Camping at top Because the Gorakh Hill Is Under Development Sindh Govt. have some project Like Hotel, Restaurants, and a chair lift at Top.


Ranikot
It is the largest fort of its kind in the region and in the world, It is situated in the of the Kirthar Range about 30 km southwest of Sann, Jamshoro district of Sindh, approximately 90 km north of Hyderabad, in Pakistan. It has an approximate diameter of 9 km. Its walls are on the average 6 meters high and are made of gypsum and lime cut sandstone and its total circumference is about 29 km of which 8 km walls are man-made. While originally constructed for bow and arrow warfare it was later expanded to withstand firearms.

Bhambore
About 64 km east of Karachi, on the National Highway, is an interesting archaeological site, Bhambore, originally the sea-port of Debal where the young Arab warrior Mohammad Bin Qasim landed his armies in 711 AD. Three different periods in Sindh history coincide here: the Scytho-Parthians, the Hindu-Buddhist and the early Islamic. There is a museum and a rest house at the site.

Chaukundi Tombs
The Chaukundi Tombs are attributed to Jokhio and Baloch tribes and were build between 15th and 18th centuries. It is situated 20km east of Karachi.

Thatta
Once a famous center of learning, arts and commerce and provisional capital for about four centuries in the past, Thatta is situated 98 km east of Karachi. Today, it is notable for the Jamia Masjid built by the Moghal Emperor Shah Jehan, and the Makli Tombs (15th - 17th centuries), a vast necropolis spread over 15.5 km², depicting exquisite specimens of architecture, stone carvings and glazed tile decorations.

Keenjhar Lake
Some 24 km north of Thatta, is the large man-made Keenjhar Lake, which is 30 km long and 10 km wide. The lake has facilities for angling and boating. PTDC motels offer food and accommodation.

Makli Hill or Makli Tombs
One of the largest necropolises in the world, with a diameter of approximately 8 kilometers, the Makli Tombs are supposed to be the burial place of some 125,000 Sufi saints. It is located on the outskirts of Thatta, the capital of lower Sind until the seventeenth century, in what is the southeastern province of present-day Pakistan.

Kirthar National Park
Located about 48 km from Karachi in the midst of the barren rocks of the Kirthar Range in Dadu district, near Thano Boola Khan is Kirthar National Park. Designed and planned with the help of the research and planning group of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, the park is approved and recognized by international wildlife bodies. It is the last bastion of a wide variety of the region's wildlife that includes Sindh ibex, urial, deer, leopard, gray partridges and Houbara bustard. The Sindh Wildlife Management Board plans tours and provides transport from Karachi.

Hyderabad
Situated at about 164 km northeast of Karachi, Hyderabad was the capital of Sindh during the reign of the Talpur Mirs in the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, it is known for Mehran University of Engineering & Technology(MUET) and Sindh University, Jamshoro; the provincial museum; the Institute of Sindhology and the Sindhi Adabi Board and also for colourful handicrafts such as glass bangles, glazed tiles, lacquered wood furniture, handloom cloth called 'soosi', block-printed 'Ajrak', leather shoes, etc. Historic monuments include old Mud Fort, Sheikh Makai Fort, Kalhoro Monuments, Talpur Monuments and Miani Forest.

Mir Shahdad jo Qubo
Tomb of Mir Shahdad Talpur (who is regarded as one of the finest military commanders of Sindh) one of the historical heritages of Sindh is at Shahpur Chakar Distt: Sanghar. This is a graveyard of the family members of Mir Shahdad Talpur. Shahdadpur a big city of Province Sindh is named behind Mir Shahdad Talpur, whereas Shahpur Chakar is named behind his son Mir Chakar Talpur.yes

Hala
Hala is famous for its glazed pottery and enameled wood work. Situated on the National Highway about 56 km from Hyderabad, it is frequently visited by hundreds of devotees of Hazrat Makhdoom Noah (10th century Hijra), a contemporary of Mughal Emperor Akbar and a religious divine, who converted a large number of people of Islam and also translated the Quran into Persian which is one of its earliest Persian translations in South Asia.

Bhitshah
Situated at about 56 km from Hyderabad on the National Highway, Bhitshah is the resting place of Sindh's renowned saint and mystic poet Hazrat Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai (1689 - 1752). He is remembered for the compendium of his poetry called 'Risalo', a treasure house of wisdom as well as romantic folklore and fine pottery. He also founded a musical tradition of his own which is still popular. Devotees sing with fervor and frenzy his love-intoxicated Kafis to the strains of ek-tara (single string instrument) mainly on the occasion of his "Urs" held every year between 13th and 15th of Safar, the second Islamic lunar month.

Sehwan
Situated on the right bank of River Indus at a distance of 135 km from Hyderabad, Sehwan is an old town of pre-Islamic period. Here are the remains of Kafir-Qila, a fort reported to have been constructed by Alexander the Great. Sehwan is famous for the resting place of the great mystic poet, saint and scholar Shaikh Usman Marvandvi (1117 - 1274), popularly known as Shahbaz Qalandar whose mausoleum is visited by thousands of the devotees throughout the year. During the Urs celebrations (18th Shahban - the eighth Islamic lunar month), devotees dance rhythmically and with total abandon to the beat of drums (Naqqara Dhamal), finally ending in a spiritual trance.

Manchar Lake
About 16 km from Sehwan, Manchar, the largest fresh water lake in Asia, is as old as the Indus River. Spread over 254 km², it is a perfect spot for relaxing and the best location for duck-shooting during winter.


Daraza Sharif

Faiz Mahal, Khairpur

Daraza Sharif, a small village, some 52 km from Khairpur, is known for the tomb of Sachal Sarmast who was a great master of Islamic learning, lived a pious life and composed poetry in Sindhi, Seraiki, Persian and Urdu. Sachal Sarmast's Urs is celebrated on 14th of Ramzan (9th month of Islamic lunar calendar).
Kot Deji
Kot Deji is regarded as one of the world's most important archaeological sites, dating back to 3000 BC, older than Moen-jo-daro and Harappa. Excavations made in 1955 unearthed an astoundingly well-organized city with a citadel that testifies to its being the finest fortified town in South Asian subcontinent.

Moen-jo-Daro
About 563 km from Karachi off the Indus Highway lie the world-famous ruins of Moen-jo-Daro (the Mound of the Dead), now being preserved with UNESCO's help. The museum at Moen-jo-Daro is unique and a visit takes you back centuries back when the location was a civilized city and a busy river Port. Air and train services from Karachi and an air-conditioned rest house have been built there.

Other places
Among other historical sites are Amri, Umerkot (the birthplace of Emperor Akbar) and the legendary Arab city of Mansura near Shahdadpur in Sanghar district. Other interesting places include Matiari, town of old beautiful mosques and one of the centers of 'Ajrak'. On its outskirts lie the ruins of a Buddhist stupa. Nasarpur is famous for 'Khes', exquisite embroidery, decorative pottery, and wood work. It is also a holy place for the Hindu community.
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