Go to Home
 
Ecological Alternative Agriculture Practices

ASSESSMENT OF THE BENIFITS OF PRECESION LAND LEVELLING

Type of Benefit

Magnitude of Benefit (%)

Increase in the use of fertilizer and farmyard manure.
15-35
Increased in cropped area due to elimination of unnecessary bunds and water channels.
2.5
Saving of Water.
25
Increase in Cropping intensity.
35-40
Increase in Crop yield.
20-35
Saving of time and labour for irrigation.
23-25
Reduction in number of katcha nakkas.
35-48
Eradication of water logging and salinity.
42


AVAILABILITY OF ORGANIC MATTER AND NITROGEN IN DIFFERENT GREEN MANURING CROPS

Sr.No.
CROPS
O.M. (KG/AREA)
NITORGEN (KG/AREA)

NITORGEN %

1 Mong
1800
15
0.84
2 Barseem
5600
25
0.45
3 Guara
7400
47
0.64
4 Sanhemp
7400
37
0.50
5 Archer
2800
18
0.64
6 Senji
8700
56
0.64
7 Sesbania
6775
35
0.52
8 Rice Straw
2400
9
0.35
9 Rice Husk
-
-
0.25
10 Farmyard Manure
-
-
0.50

FERTILIZER USE FOR SINDH IRRIGATION AREAS (NFDC, ISLAMABAD)
 
SOIL CONDITION
N
P
K (KG/AREA)
RABI CROPS:
Wheat
Medium Fertilizer
54
27
0
Poor Soils
70
34
25
Barely
Medium
46
23
0
Low Fertile
68
34
0
Oil Seed
Rape and Mustard
46
23
0
Safflower
50
23
23
Lin Seed
30
20
0
Soya Been
25
34
0
Seasmum
20
16
0
Pulses
Gram
10
23
0
Masoor (Lentil) 10
23
0
0
 
KHARIF CROPS:
Rice
 
Coarse (IRRI)
Medium Soil
72
36
20
Rice Soil
50
25
0
Basmati
Medium Soil
36
18
0
Rice Soil
30
16
0
Cotton (R.VTS)
Lower Sindh
120
50
70
Middle Sindh
100
40
50
Upper Sindh
80
40
40
Maize (I-Hyb)
 
60
24
20
Sunflower (I-Hyb)
 
50
24
20
Mungbean
 
10
20
0
Potatoes
 
65
30
40
       
Fodders
Berseem
 
15
30
0
Lucern
 
10
23
0
Oats
 
32
23
0
Maize and Jawar
 
34
23
0
Millets (Bajra)
 
32
23
0
Sada Bahar
 
32
23
0


PROVINCE WISE CHEMICAL STATUS OF SOIL PROFILES (% OF PROFILES)
PROVINCE
SURVEY PERIOD
NO OF PROFILES
NSNS*
SALINE
SALINE SODIC
NSS**
N.W.F.P
1977-79
1985
79
11
7
2
 
1971-75
314
27
50
23
-
Punjab
1977-79
39963
73
7
14
5
 
1953-65
23662
55
6
27
11
Sindh
1977-79
20543
38
17
42
2
Balochitan
1977-79
1402
35
26
38
1
Pakistan
1977-79
63866
61
11
24
3
 
1962-65
23976
55
6
27
11
* Non Saline Non Sodic.
** Non Saline Sodin.

CROP GROUPS BASED ON RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS

SECSITIVE GROUPS
RESISTANT GROUPS
Highly Sensitive
Mediun Sensitive
Highly Tolerant
Mediun Tolerant
Lentil
Radish
Spinash
Barley
Mash
Cowpea
Sugarcane
Rice (Transplanted)
Chickpea
Broad Bean
Roya
Cotton
Beans
Vetch
Rice (Direct Sowing)
Sugar Beet
Peas
Cabbage
Wheat
Turnip
Carrot
Cauliflower
Pearl Millet
Tobacco
Onion
Cucumber
Oats
Safflower
Lemon
Gourds
Alfalfa
Taramir
Orange
Tomato
Blue Panic Grass
Karnal Grass
Grape
Sweet Potato
Para Grass
Date Palm
Peach
Sorghum
Rhode Grass
Ber
Plum
Millets
Sudan Grass
Mesquite
Pear
Maize
Guava
Casuarica
Apple
Clover, Berseem
Pomegranate
Tamarix
Desi Babu (Assasia)
Salvadora

WATER REQUIREMENTS OF SOME COMMON CROPS AND CRITICAL GROWTH STAGES WITH RESPECT TO WATER REQUIREMENT
CROP
WATER REQUIREMENT (MM/INCHES)
CRITICAL STAGES OF CROP GROWTH
    CEREALS
Wheat 350-560 / 13.8"-22.0"
Crown root initiation, tillering, jointing, boot, flowering, grain development.
Rice 1200-1800 / 47.4"-70.8"
Initiation of tillering, floral primordial emergence, flowering.
Maize, spring 430-715 / 16.9:-28.2"
Tasseling, silking, cob and grain development.
Maiz, autumn 320-460 / 12.6"-18.1"
Tasseling, silking, cob and grain development.
Barley 150-130 / 06.0:-05.1"
Initiation of tillering, boot, grain development.
   
SUGAR CROPS
Sugarcane 1200-1500 / 47.3"59.1"
Seeding emergence, tillering, cane elongation.
   
FIBRE CROPS
Cotton 600-800 / 23.6:-31.5"
Commencement of sympodial branches, flowering fruit (boll) setting.
   
PULSES
Mung bean 250-350 / 9.9:-13.8"
Pre-flowering (just before floral initiation), flowering, pod development.
Mash been (urd) 250-350 / 9.9:-13.8"
Pre-flowering (just before floral initiation), flowering, pod development.
Sunflower 600-1000 / 23.6"39.4"
flowering, seed development.
Mustard 300-400 / 11.8"-15.7"
flowering, pod development.
Berseem 800-1120 / 31.5:-44.1"
After each cutting
Sorghum 450-600 / 17.7"-23.6"
Throughout growth period

WATER LOSSES IN CANAL IRRIGATION SYSTEM OF PAKISTAN
SOURCE
WATER LOSSES (%)
FACTOR
Canal head to outlet 35 Seepage / precolation, evaporation
Watercourses delivery 24 Seepage, overflow, evaporation
Field application 25 Unlevelled field and over irrigation.

CROPPING PATTERN IN HYDERABAD, THATTA, BADIN AND SINDH (% OF CROPPED AREA)
RABI CROPS
HYDERABAD
THATTA
BADIN
SINDH
Wheat 26.12 6.09 10.54 24.78
Barley 0.01 4.08 1.91 0.39
Rae Seeds and Mustard 0.24 0.34 0.36 1.83
Gram 0.27 0.02 0.01 1.10
Lentil 0.22 0.68 0.15 0.21
Peas 0.27 0.40 0.04 1.85
Other Pulses 0.01 0.30 0.01 0.02
Onion 5.01 0.96 2.81 1.56
Chillies 0.79 0.24 0.64 0.38
Condiments 0.95 0.59 1.00 0.53
Fodder 4.67 6.61 4.69 4.52
Fruits 0.35 0.10 0.07 0.19
Tomato 0.18 0.75 0.75 0.18
Carrot 0.13 0.01 0.34 0.05
Cauliflower 0.10 0.01 0.43 0.05
Rabi Vegetable 1.18 1.47 2.57 0.58
Total Rabi 40.49 22.65 26.31 38.21
Kharif Crops
Cotton 15.16 0.38 1.42 16.31
Rice 4.87 40.69 34.30 16.02
Sugarcane 20.31 22.80 25.26 7.55
Sorghum 0.09 0.49 0.12 3.31
Pearl millet 1.60 0.10 0.31 5.51
Maize 0.37 0.28 0.52 0.26
Sesame 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.13
Pulses 0.36 0.44 0.07 0.43
Friuts 7.15 5.89 2.12 3.46
Vegetable 0.92 1.17 0.77 0.47
Chillies 0.82 0.98 2.13 0.78
Condiments 0.84 1.01 2.14 0.79
Fodders 6.76 2.91 4.39 5.54
Gower Seed 0.25 0.16 0.13 1.24
Total Kharif 59.51 77.35 73.69 61.79

MAJOR BENEFITS OF WATERCOURSE IMPROVEMENT
SR.NO
PARTICULARS
EXTENT (%)
1 Time saving in irrigation time
28
2 Labour saving
50
3 Increase in cropping intensity
23
4 Increase in cropped area
17
5 Increase in yield
16-37
6 Increase in net farm income
20

MAJOR BENEFITS OF LASER LAND LEVELLING
SR.NO
PARTICULARS
EXTENT (%)
1 Curtailment in irrigation application lossed
25
2 Reduction in labour requirements
35
3 Enhancment in the irrigated area
2
4. Increase in the crop yield
20

PRODUCTIVITY OF CEREALS PER UNIT OF WATER
CROPS (NEW STRAINS)
WATER REQUIREMENT (CM)
YIELD (KG/HA)
PRODUCTIVITY PER UNIT OF WATER (KG/HA/MM)
Rice
120
4500
3.7
Sorghum
50
4500
9.0
Pearl Millet (Bajra)
50
4000
8.0
Maize
62.5
5000
8.0
Wheat
40
5000
12.5

WATER REQUIREMENTS OF SOME COMMON CROPS AND CRITICAL GROWTH STAGES WITH RESPECT TO WATER REQUIREMENT
CROP
WATER REQUIREMENT (MM*)
CRITICAL STAGES OF CROP GROWTH
    CEREALS
Wheat 350-560 Crown root initiation, tillering, jointing, boot, flowing, grain development.
Rice 1200-1800 Initiation of tillering, floral primordial emergence, flowring.
Maize, Spring 430-715 Tasseling, silking, cob and grain development.
Maize, autumn 320-460 Tasseling, silking, cob and grain development.
Barly 150-130 Initiation of tillering, boot, grain development
    SUGAR CROPS.
Sugarcane 1200-1500 Seedling emergence, tillering, cane elongation
Sugar beet   Ring formation, carbohydrate partitioning, stop irrigation 2-3 weeks before harvest.
    FIBRE CROPS
Cotton 600-800 Commencement of sympodial branches, flowering, fruit (boll) setting.
    PULSES
Chickpea (gram) 300-400 Pre-flowering (just before floral initiation), flowering, pod development.
Lentil 300-400 Pre-flowering (just before floral initiation), flowering, pod development.
Mung bean 250-350 Pre-flowering (just before floral initiation), flowering, pod development.
Mash bean (urd) 250-350 Pre-flowering (just before floral initiation), flowering, pod development.
Prigewnpea (arhar) 250-400 Pre-flowering (just before floral initiation), flowering, pod development.
Soya bean 450-700 Early seedling, flowering, pod and seed development
    OIL SEEDS
Sunflower 600-1000 Flowering, seed development
Sunflower 150-225 Flowering, seed development
Groundnut 450-600 Pegging to pod formation
Seame 225-300 Flowering,capsule and seed development
Toria (Indian rape) 330-450 Flowering, pod development
Mustard 300-400 Flowering, pod development
Linseed 350-450 Flowering, pod development
    FODDER CROPS
Alfalfa 800-1600 After each cutting
Berseem 800-1120 After each cutting
Shaftal 700-900 After each cutting
Senji 450-600 Throughout growth period
Sorghum 450-600 Throughout growth period
Pearl millet (bajra) 450-600 Throughout growth period
    VEGETABLE CROPS
Potato 500-700 Stolonization, tuberization, bulking
Pea 350-550 Pre bloom
    SPECIAL CROPS
Tobacco 700-800 Topping

 

Copyrights 2005, Agriculture Department, All Rights Reserved
Site Designed,Maintained by P.M.Cell